Posts Tagged ‘retail investors’

RED HERRING PROSPECTUS: A CAREFUL EXERCISE

Initial Public Offering (IPO) is an exercise done by a company for raising capital by going public. IPO is raised generally in two ways either through fixed price or through Book Building. Generally, most of the companies follow the book building process. For this purpose, the company assigns the Merchant Banker as a Book Running Lead Manager (BRLM) for the IPO to handle the responsibility of Book Building Process.

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Book Building is a mechanism through which a consensus price of IPO can be determined on the basis of bids received from the informed investors such as Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs), Non-Institutional Buyers (NIBs) and Retail Investors. The process helps in making a correct evaluation of a company’s potential and the price of its shares. In most of the IPOs generally the allocation of the total issue into these 3 categories comprises of 50%, 15%, 35% of the total issue respectively.

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However when the dilution of the promoters stake is less than 25% the minimum allocating proportion for these categories changes to 60%, 10%, 30% of the total issue,respectively. The company aspiring to be public, files Red Herring Prospectus (RHP),framed by merchant banker, to the regulatory body SEBI that is supposed to cover all the important information about the company, its promoters and its businesses with due diligence.

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RHP is supposed to be the most important document for the company as it acts as a medium of imparting all the critical information regarding the issuer company to the public.Generally prospectus spreads over 300-400 pages. However, investors can concentrate on few key chapters to have the overall understanding of the public issue. Industry Overview, Company Overview, Capital Structure, Objects of the issue, Financial Information and Management discussion and Analysis are some of the chapters that one should necessarily focus on.

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Let’s understand the relevance of each of these topics one by one:

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Industry Overview: This chapter covers the prevailing market scenario of the industry in which the company operates. We get to know that how much the particular industry contributes to the growth of the country’s economy. That is the behavior of the industry with respect to the growth momentum of the country’s economy. Moreover it entails the government plans and initiatives, budgetary allocation in accordance with five year plans for the industry. This gives the picture of potential opportunity in the industry and its key drivers. It also includes the various linkages regarding the relation of industry to the domestic and global economy.

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Business Overview: This compasses all the information related to the business domain of the company – how the business commenced its operations, grown over the period. The product details of the company and where does it lies in the value chain of the industry. The product scope,how the distribution channel works, the marketing strategy, raw material procurement, details about the vendors, clients and their relation withthe company, the revenue generation process, target market, location of operation. All these information helps in knowing the strengths and weaknesses of the company. It also gives information regarding the future aspects of the company.

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How the company is expecting to expand its business, strategies to increase the market share of the company.

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Capital Structure: It tells us about the shareholding pattern of the company. The constituents of the present equity capital of the company, since inception to the present pattern of the shareholding. The details of the how it has raised its capital under the due period. It gives us the details aboutwho are the stakeholders along with their respective stake in the company.

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Objects of the Issue: This chapter assumes high degree of significance in the RHP as it answers the very first question that comes to the mind of the investors that for what reason the company is going public. It entails the objectives of the issue as where and how the company is going to deploy the funds raised from the issue. At times the company induces the fund requirements from the internal accruals that can be from the present business profits of the company or through the debt syndication from banks along with the issue proceeds.

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Company sometimes also utilize the issue proceeds to repay its debt so as to reduce its interest burden. Thus, it contains the purposes of the issue with their respective amount being required.

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Financial Information: This includes all the financial statements of the company on the stand alone and consolidated basis viz. Profit and loss statement, balance sheet, fund flow statement. These statements show the performance of the company from past 4-5 years along with the annexure that details various heads of these statements. Financial Statements helps the investors in knowing the health of the company in numbers.Various ratios and multiples are arrived with the help of these statements.

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Management Discussion and Analysis: This chapter summarizes the company businesses and its development in due course of time. Year-on-year financial comparison is explained in this part of the document. This helps us in knowing the management’s efficiency to grow a company. Certain important events, factors affecting the operations of the company or some specific strategies of the company are explained in this part of the document.To sum up, RHP being the formal document of the company plays an integral role in assessing the company’s business prospects and thus helps investors in taking decision for subscribing an IPO or otherwise.

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However, it is generally perceived as a lengthy exercise by some section of investors.This can be achieved by going through the above discussed topics that can impart all the relevant information of the company leading to a wise investment decision. After all, “Moneywise Be wise”.

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CURRENCY FUTURE – BETTER FUTURE FOR CURRENCY TRADERS

There is good news for currency traders who would like to trade in currency futures. After trading in dollar-rupee futures, now corporate and retail investors will also be able to trade in currencies such as Euro, and Japanese Yen.

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Currently dollar-rupee futures are trading on three recognized exchanges, NSE, MCX Stock Exchange and BSE. But the currency derivative is liquid only on the first two bourses, which have together posted an average daily turnover of around Rs. 18,566 crore in December, up from a couple of thousand crore when the currency futures trading commenced in the second-half of 2008.

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NSE commenced currency futures trading in India on 29th August 2008. It has witnessed healthy growth in the turnover and open interest positions during its first completed month of currency futures trading in India.

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Brief of currency future

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Currency futures contracts are those contracts which allow investors to hedge against foreign exchange risk and traders to speculate on the movement in Currency. Since these contracts are marked-to-market daily, investors can exit from their obligation to buy or sell the currency prior to the contract’s delivery date.

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Major Profitable accounts

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The introduction of new currency pairs will go a long way in helping market participants, especially international traders, hedge against cross-currency Volatility and mitigate risk in export and imports across all major traded currencies and will add depth to the exchange-traded currency futures market.

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Along with the above mentioned participants, Currency futures trading in India has generated huge interest among Indian retail investors and traders.

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There is a strong demand for information gathering about the intricacies of currency futures from small investors and enterprises. For instance, entities that have borrowings in Euro will get one more avenue, apart from the over-the-counter market that is dominated by banks, to hedge them against volatility in the 16-nation common currency.

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Due to the transparent mechanism of execution in currency futures trade, increased participation by corporations and high net worth individuals, too, could be witnessed.

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Contract specification

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As in the case of the dollar-rupee futures, the contract size has been fixed at 1,000 units each for pound and euro, and 100,000 units for the yen, across 12 concurrently available contracts, one for each month.

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The contracts, like the existing dollar futures, would be cash-settled in rupees and the settlement price would be at RBI’s reference rate for all the four currencies.

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However, there are different initial margins (cash) that an investor needs to put up for trading each currency on day one and subsequently though this has not been changed for the dollar.

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The market regulator has also decided to modify the calendar spread margin to be applied on the dollar-rupee contracts.

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All the new contracts would be quoted in rupee terms, while the outstanding positions would be in the respective foreign currency terms.

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The maximum maturity of the contract would be 12 months, while all monthly maturities from 1 to 12 months would be made available.

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The contracts would be settled in cash in rupees.

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The client-level position limit has been capped at 6 per cent of the total open interest position.

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Responses:

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Market participants responded enthusiastically to the inclusion of these new currency pairs. The three new currency pairs clocked Rs. 1,98,761 contracts resulting from 7,762 trades at a total value of Rs. 1,277.13-crore on the NSE on day first, which is approximately comes out to be 9.61 percent of the total turnover in value terms. Out of the three new pairs, euro-rupee (EURINR) was the most traded currency pair clocking 1, 82,013 contracts.

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Total contracts and open interest in EUR/INR and GBP/INR:



First Traders inception of currency futures 🙂

The first trade in the new currency pairs was executed by East India Securities, IndusInd Bank executed the first trade amongst banks. Union Bank was the first PSU bank to trade and execute the single largest trade. ICICI Bank and State Bank also participated actively. This market has now become bigger than the cash segment of the equity market, which recorded average volumes of Rs. 20,000 crore last month.

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The beauty of exchange-traded currency futures are that they allow a participant to directly buy or sell the Dollar,Euro,Yen or GBP without having an underlying exposure, so it’s also a view-based market. One can take this opportunity of investing smartly in currency futures and gain by every tick.

Stay Tuned for More updates 🙂

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Retail Investors Turn Cautious Towards IPOs

Retail Investors Turn Cautious Towards IPOs

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Aggressive IPO pricing and poor post-listing performances have made retail investors extremely cautious this year.

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Of the Rs 18,407 crore collected through IPOs, the retail investor portion was subscribed 1.86 times on an average, according to a research report by SMC Capital.

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Qualified institutional buyers‘ portion was subscribed by 11.42 times and high net worth individuals’ portion by 8.49 times.

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IPOs this year were subscribed 7.64 times.

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Of the 19 IPOs, the retail portions of five issues were not even fully subscribed, while five just about managed to get subscribed.

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Many retail Investors have decided against putting money into recent IPOs after looking at the post-listing performances of stocks that were listed earlier.

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Only shares of six companies are trading above their issue prices – these include Mahindra Holidays, Oil India and Cox and Kings (India).

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A lot of investors had saved up, especially for the NHPC IPO.  But when it listed poorly these investor must have suffered hugely.

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As per the market experts , a lot of the IPOs that came out this year have been highly priced, which has made the already skeptical retail investor stay away from the primary market.

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Bunch of retail investors are looking at “short-term gains”, so they now prefer to invest their money in the secondary markets rather than in IPOs, market experts feel.

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If one goes by the DRHPs filed with SEBI, there are approximately Rs 29,000 crore worth of IPOs in the pipeline, said Mr Jagannadham Thunuguntla, Equity Head at SMC Capital.

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Global Slowdown Caused Slump in Growth Rate of the Demat Accounts

Global Slowdown Caused Slump in Growth Rate of the Demat Accounts

 

Despite the blistering pace kept by the equities market in the past 10 months, the rise in the number of new retail investors has slowed down.

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According to the data from National Securities and Depositories Limited, the growth rate of demat accounts has declined to 6 per cent, compared with 13 per cent last year.

Experts attribute this to the overall slowdown in the economy.

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As per experts a prolonged, dull phase in 2008 made investors jittery about investing in the equities market.

Also, as many individuals were scared of losing their jobs, so they did not intend to invest more.

There has been an average growth of 14.75 per cent in investors opening demat accounts till 2008.

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Financial intermediaries such as broking companies, whose fortunes are directly linked to the markets, have witnessed subdued sentiments in the equity space from retail investors.

Experts cited 2008 market crash and the global financial meltdown as the reason for this negative development.

Moreover recession of last year had demotivated and scared the retail investors good enough to drive them away from the further investing.

This caused enormous loss for Financial intermediaries and most of the brokerage houses had to shut shop and retrench many staff too.

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“The confidence of the retail investors is yet to be restored. Even in the case of new initial public offerings, only the institutional part is getting oversubscribed,” said Jagannadham Thunuguntla, head of research at SMC Capitals.

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SEBI Allows Auctions for QIBs in FPOs :)

SEBI Allows Auctions for QIBs in FPOs

Market regulator, SEBI has introduced a significant change in the way institutional bidders invest in follow-on public offers by allowing allotments through auctions.

 

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) has amended the Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements Regulations (ICDR) to allow pure auctions for qualified institutional investors (QIBs) in follow-on public offerings to begin with.


The method may be later extended to initial public offerings.

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Under the new method, bidders will be free to bid at any price above the floor price.

At present, allotments are made at the floor price.

Retail investors, however , will be allotted shares at the floor price.

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The board also decided that the issuer is free to place a cap either in terms of the number of shares or percentage to issued capital of the company so that a single bidder does not garner all the shares on offer, ensuring a wider distribution of shareholding.

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Jagannadham Thunuguntla, Equity Head,  SMC Capitals, said this means an institutional investor can continue to bid above the floor price and the QIB allotment will be made to the highest bidder.


“The intent is to enable companies to mop up more funds. Earlier, even when there were huge subscriptions and huge demand for an issue, the company could not get more money. This becomes more relevant in the context of the recently announced divestment plans and FPOs by the government for public sector units,” he said.

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Auction for QIBs is welcome as it would allow risk-taking entities and not just the promoters to be a part of the price discovery process, other analyst said.


A SEBI release issued after the board meeting also said the minimum market capitalisation required by listed firms to sell shares in follow-on offerings has been halved to Rs.5,000 crores  from Rs 10,000 crore.

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Moreover, the market regulator has also made it a mandatory that all listed companies would have to furnish audited or un-audited balance sheets on a half-yearly basis within 45 days from the end of the quarter instead of the current yearly basis.

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This would imply that Indian companies will be required to disclose balance sheet items.


Shareholders would be able to access the statement of assets and liabilities of the company and its solvency position on a half-yearly basis.


Shareholders would receive immense help in making informed investment decisions now and would be in better position to assess the financial health of the companies, with the implementation of this SEBI regulation of mandating frequent disclosure of the asset-liability position of companies by companies.

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SEBI’s Auction Move on FPOs Impresses Marketmen :)

 

SEBI's Auction Move on FPOs Impresses Marketmen

SEBI's Auction Move on FPOs Impresses Marketmen

SEBI’s has planned to remove the cap price for the follow-on public offerings and this idea seems to be impressing market players.

SEBI has said that  it would introduce “pure auction as an additional book building mechanism for institutional investors for follow-on public offerings (FPOs).”

Analysts and market men feel that this is going to generate loads of excitement and fun for market players, as those investors who are convinced about a particular issue will invest at a higher price to seek allotment and those not-so-convinced can invest at a lower price.

Merchant bankers said it will be interesting to see how this will work as there are a few PSU FPOs likely to hit the market soon.

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PSUs likely to come out with FPOs include NMDC, MMTC, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers, National Fertilizers, Coal India and Engineers India

As of now, the IPO price is determined through a price band (which has a lower and upper level).

An auction or floor price is the minimum price at which bids can be made for an IPO.

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Meanwhile, merchant bankers welcomed SEBI’s announcement on Monday that exchanges could have a separate platform for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME).

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As the primary market size grows, the smaller companies are getting lost amid the big ticket IPOs.
Having such exclusive guidelines for SMEs is definitely a good idea, said merchant bankers.

SME platform SEBI on the lines of the AIM on the London Stock Exchange will be better.

Those SMEs with a paid-up capital of between Rs 10 crore and Rs 25 crore have an option of either being on the SME exchange or the main bourses.

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According to the new guidelines, SMEs should have a maximum paid up capital of Rs 25 crore for listing.

For an investor the minimum application size in an SME IPO will now be Rs 1 lakh.

Though such a limit might seem like it will prevent the retail investor of small means from investing in SME IPOs, merchant bankers said that it is a good move.

“This will allow retail investors to take more informed decisions. It will protect these investors as the chances of manipulation with respect to smaller companies are much higher. Those investors with the right amount of knowledge and liquidity will be the ones investing in these IPOs,” said Mr Jagannadham Thunuguntla, Head of Equity at SMC Capital.

Having the merchant bankers underwriting the IPO will make sure that they price the issue properly and also provide proper valuations.

Merchant bankers are also happy that for an SME issue the minimum number of investors is only 50 for a particular issue.

“For an issue, as of now, there has to be a minimum of 1,000 investors,” said Mr Thunuguntla.