Posts Tagged ‘money supply’

INFLATION – “THE SILENT CREEPER” Final Part

Hello Friends here we come up with an extension of our previous blog, INFLATION

–  “THE SILENT CREEPER” Part 2.

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INFLATION – “THE SILENT CREEPER” Part 3

In previous Blog we had touched upon the possible Measures to check inflation.

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Now in this part we would look into other concerns in Indian economy regarding the parameters to check inflation.

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Concerns in Indian Economy Regarding Inflation :

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Apart from reasons and measures to check inflation, other concern in Indian economy is the parameters to check inflation.

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It is well known that India is the only country which considered WPI (Wholesale Price Index) while rest of the countries measured CPI (Consumer Price Index).

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WPI consists of 435 goods over 1993-94, as base year in which the weightage of food items is only 16%, which has large weightage of consumer spending in India.

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Though WPI in India is still in single digit, if we consider CPI it is already in double digit due to dearer farm articles and their higher weightage in measures.

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In CPI, food articles have 50% weightage.

Hence there is a wide gap between the weightage of food articles of WPI and CPI, which are unable to give the clear pictures.

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Furthermore, 2/3rd of the price quotations used to calculate the WPI are sourced from only four metros.

Hence to get the real picture, area should be widened.

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comparison between food inflation and WPI from January, 2008 to October, 2009.

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In the above chart, it is a comparison between food inflation and WPI from January, 2008 to October, 2009.

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Line chart is representing WPI monthly inflation whereas bar chart is indicating food article inflation.

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It appears that food article inflation is on continuous rise while WPI monthly inflation saw both side movements.

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It has started its northward journey in the month of March-April and it is still continued.

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Arrival of kharif crop is less likely to cool it as we are expecting 18% decline in kharif crop.

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Hence downside will be limited, rather it may move in a range with upside bias.

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The words of future RBI (Reserve Bank of India) has revised its outlook for inflation and expecting that it should be between the range of 5% to 6-6.5% for the year ending March 2010.

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There is a fear in the economy that the real impact of almost 18% drop in kharif rice production is to reflect in inflation.

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It would occur when kharif produce; rice, pulses, oilseeds and cereals would start coming in the market.

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With witnessing favourable weather conditions, economy is expecting strong rabi produce, which may cool off inflation of food articles to some extent.

However, we cannot rule out the possibility adverse weather.

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Ultimately what matters is final produce and yield.

Government has to take care of everything like, demand –supply equilibrium, money supply, distribution etc.

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Otherwise it will become nightmare for “aam admi” and hamper the economic growth.

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🙂

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INFLATION – “THE SILENT CREEPER” Part 2

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Hello Friends here we come up with an extension of our previous blog, INFLATION –  “THE SILENT CREEPER”.

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Inflation Silent Creeper Part 2

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In previous Blog we had touched upon the impacts of inflation on economy in current scenario and the reasons for the inflation.

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Now in this part we would look into the possible Measures to check inflation.

Measures to check inflation:


•  To give immediate relief from inflationary pressure, government is planning to check the supply deficiency.

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It has allowed importing sugar.

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It will import rice, as rice production is expected to drop in 2010.

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Import duties on oil seeds have been slashed.

•  Money supply should be checked, otherwise in the time of scarcity excess liquidity will accelerate inflation further.

•  Distribution process should be very fast and transparent.

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Currently we need a well managed and coordinated distribution of stocks through PDS (Public Distribution System), open market sales of public stocks etc.

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Hoarding should be avoided here and government should keep an eye on this.

•  This rising inflation has become a major threat for economy.

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The only key way to check the inflation is to bridge the gap between demand and supply, which may control the price rise.

•  Unfortunately, Indian agriculture is characterized by low input and low output systems.

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Hence we have to increase the productivity.

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For example: Yield of paddy in India is only 2.9 tonnes/hectare as compared to 7.5 tonnes/hectare in US.

•  Check the rising cost of cultivation.

Increasing land, labour, fertilizers and other inputs are discouraging farmers to produce more in absence of sufficient liquidity.

•  Apart from grain, government should also create buffer stocks or strategic reserve of oil seeds and other crop, so that it can release it at the time of crisis.

Next Blog we would try to know about the other concerns in Indian economy regarding the parameters to check inflation.

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Stay Tuned for more on this.

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Points to Remember while Selling Stocks – Part 2

Hello Friends here we come up with an extension of our previous blog, “Points to Remember while Selling Stocks Part 1”.

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Points to Remember while Selling Stocks

Points to Remember while Selling Stocks

In previous Blog we had touched upon few points related to selling stock tips.

In this blog lets get to know more of valuable points in this regard.:)

Major points when to sell your stocks ( starting from 4th..three already being discussed in Blog 1)

4. Stock is Over Valued:

During bull market, high quality stocks appreciate value.

But more importantly, with so much hype around the stock, they are often set up for a fall.

Therefore, investor may use the strategy of selling them first and buy at lower price.

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5. Need Some Cash-

Certain unexpected circumstances may affect the time when to sell stock.

It is not wrong to sell stock to solve your financial emergency, especially the underperforming one.

However, it is advisable to have some emergency cash funds.

After all, basic investing rules is to start investing if you have enough money.

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6. A Change in Monetary Policy-

The Central Bank, RBI changes monetary policy if it perceives that inflation is heating up.

By raising interest rates, it contracts the money supply and slows down the financial system.

It is generally seen that stocks normally react negatively against the action, and some time markets become more volatile.

If you are not happy with this type of risk then you should move a portion of your portfolio into stocks that will not be as affected with such changes.

🙂

7. A Company Suddenly Cuts Dividends or Lower Income Estimates-

This event should be investigated carefully before making any judgment to sell.

For good reason, the board of directors might want to retain more of their earnings for internal growth, rather than paying them out in dividends.

Sell a company’s stock if the performance is down.

Investors must never sell the stock of a fine company if its price goes either ways significantly – up or down.

Falling earnings margins and slowing earnings must be treated as a warning signal.

Lastly, I would like to say that always do your homework (Research) well while selling a company’s stock; you can use either the top-down approach or the bottom-up approach.

Markets are often full of rumors. You cannot make money in the market by acting on market rumors.

Always listen to the stories, but remember you should do your own research–and do it thoroughly.

Make your buy or sell decision based on your analysis of the company, not on what others tell you to do.

🙂

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Economic Indicators Part 2 :)

Hello Friends, just an extension of our yesterday’s blog on economic indicators where we talked about the categories of Economic indicators and relationship between various indicators.

ECONOMIC INDICATORS WITH A FOCUS ON STOCK MARKETS AS A LEADING INDICATOR

ECONOMIC INDICATORS WITH A FOCUS ON STOCK MARKETS AS A LEADING INDICATOR

Now in this Blog, we would look upon issues like what current economic indicators reflect about the state of Indian and global economy in coming months, factors that impact the degree of correlation and general effects of the stock maket indices(economic indicators) on the economic performance of the country.

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For Indian Markets, we can refer collected data for sensex growth, GDP growth and IIP index growth for 40 quarters over the last decade i.e FY99-FY09.

On the basis of the observation, it is analyzed that there is a correlation between the indicators; however, there is a time lag of at least 3 months between the sensex performance and economic indicators performance.

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Out of the 40 time periods being observed, the time lag and the correlation has been reflected in 80% of the cases.

Therefore, on the basis of the study, we can conclude that Indian economy might witness a revival over the next 3 to 6 months.

However, the Indian stock market indices are not only the reflection of the expectation of India Inc performance; the Indian markets are highly influenced by FII inflow too.

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Thus, Indian markets not only indicate the future economic conditions of the country but the global liquidity conditions too.

Therefore, if the stock market improvements that started towards the end of the first quarter of 2009 can be further sustained, it may be an indication that economic activity levels might start to improve towards the end of 2009 / beginning of 2010 backed by the correlation theory and time lag of 6 months to 1 year.

The Leading effect of the stock maket indices on the economic performance of the country can be rationalized on the following basis:

1) Futuristic approach of stock prices

Current stock prices reflect the expected operational performance of industry. The price of a stock equals the present value of future dividends.

Hence, stock prices should rise because of higher expected corporate profits, giving the rate of return used by investors to discount future earnings.

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Since investor’s expectations about corporate profits depend on expectations about the prospective state of the economy, then stock prices should rise or fall before the actual rise or fall of general economic activity and corporate earnings.

Thus, the stock market is forward-looking, and current prices reflect the future earnings potential, or profitability, of companies.

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Since stock prices reflect expectations about profitability and since profitability is directly linked to economic activity, fluctuations in stock prices are thought to lead the direction of the economy.

If the economy is expected to enter into a recession, for example, the stock market will anticipate this by bidding down the prices of stocks.

2) Wealth Creation Effect

The “wealth effect” is also regarded as support for the stock market’s predictive ability.

Since fluctuations in stock prices have a direct effect on aggregate spending, the economy can be predicted from the stock market.

When the stock market is rising, investors’ wealth increase and they spend more.

As a result, the economy expands.

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On the contrary, if stock prices are declining, investors experience a decrease in wealth levels and spend less.

This results in slower economic growth.

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However, the factors that impact the degree of correlation are:

the variability in interest rate,

the money supply,

the rate of inflation and

the degree of confidence of market participants regarding the state of the economy.

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Thus, although the stock market is relatively reliable as a predictor, it should be used with caution and in conjunction with other leading indicators in forecasting the turning points of business cycle.

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We can also rationalize the view of 97% economists that U.S economy will be out of recession by end of CY2009.

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Factors that Move the Interest Rates – Part 2 (MONETARY POLICY)

Monetary Policy

In previous Blog we have discussed about the major factors responsible for the change in interest rates and price of bonds indirectly.

All those three factors like Inflation, Currency and Liquidity have been touched upon in last blog.

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Now time to look into another major factor which causes  movement in the interest rate. The factor i am talking about is Monetary Policy. 🙂

Monetary Policy: The RBI controls liquidity largely through monetary policy instruments –

(i) CRR & SLR – CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio) refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to maintain with the RBI.

Banks are also required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) requirements.

If either of these is increased, liquidity tightens and so interest rates harden (increase).:(

Recently, RBI has reduced both these rates to infuse liquidity in the system – CRR is 5% (down 250 bps from March ’08) and SLR is 24% (down 100 bps).

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(ii) Reverse repo rate – it is the overnight interest rate that a bank earns for lending money to the RBI in exchange for G-Secs.

A hike in reverse repo rate increases interest rates. Currently, reverse repo rate stands at 3.25%.

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(iii) Repo rate – it is the discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks.

To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash).

To contract the money supply, it increases the repo rates. The current repo rate is 4.75%.

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(iv) OMO and MSS – OMOs (Open Market Operations) are outright transactions in government securities.

When the RBI buys G-Secs, it is injecting money into the system, hence, increasing liquidity, which softens (reduces) interest rates.

When the RBI sells G-Secs, it sucks out excess money from the system i.e. reduces liquidity in the system which hardens interest rates.

MSS (Market Stabilisation Scheme) is the issuance of treasury bills and dated securities by way of auction by the RBI.

This affects interest rates in the same manner as OMOs.

🙂

Having collected updates on where the above parameters stand, one can have a better understanding of why interest rates are at their current levels, as well as which direction they are expected to move in.

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If most of them indicate that a rise in interest rates is expected, bond prices are likely to fall in the future.

On the contrary, an expectation of a fall in interest rates means bond prices will rise.

A word of caution here though – timing interest rate changes is difficult. This is because there is a low likelihood of being able to precisely predict the movement in the factors discussed above.

So in order to minimize interest rate risk, one should ensure that the bond portfolio is diversified across various maturities.

🙂

4 Monetary Policy: The RBI controls liquidity largely through monetary policy instruments –

(i) CRR & SLR – CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio) refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to maintain with the RBI. Banks are also required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) requirements. If either of these is increased, liquidity tightens and so interest rates harden (increase). Recently, RBI has reduced both these rates to infuse liquidity in the system – CRR is 5% (down 250 bps from March ’08) and SLR is 24% (down 100 bps).

(ii) Reverse repo rate – it is the overnight interest rate that a bank earns for lending money to the RBI in exchange for G-Secs. A hike in reverse repo rate increases interest rates. Currently, reverse repo rate stands at 3.25%.

(iii) Repo rate – it is the discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks. To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash).

To contract the money supply, it increases the repo rates. The current repo rate is 4.75%.

(iv) OMO and MSS – OMOs (Open Market Operations) are outright transactions in government securities. When the RBI buys G-Secs, it is injecting money into the system, hence, increasing liquidity, which softens (reduces) interest rates. When the RBI sells G-Secs, it sucks out excess money from the system i.e. reduces liquidity in the system which hardens interest rates. MSS (Market Stabilisation Scheme) is the issuance of treasury bills and dated securities by way of auction by the RBI. This affects interest rates in the same manner as OMOs.

Having collected updates on where the above parameters stand, one can have a better understanding of why interest rates are at their current levels, as well as which direction they are expected to move in. If most of them indicate that a rise in interest rates is expected, bond prices are likely to fall in the future. On the contrary, an expectation of a fall in interest rates means bond prices will rise. A word of caution here though – timing interest rate changes is difficult. This is because there is a low likelihood of being able to precisely predict the movement in the factors discussed above. So in order to minimize interest rate risk, one should ensure that the bond portfolio is diversified across various maturities.

Relation Between Price and Inflation – How ?

Relation Between Price and Inflation

There is always a direct relation between prices of certain commodities and inflation. 🙂

Let’s take the price of oil. This and inflation are connected in a cause and effect relationship.

As oil prices move up or down, inflation follows in the same direction. 🙂

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The reason why this happens is that oil is a major input in the economy – it is used in critical activities such as fueling transportation – and if input costs rise, so does the cost of end products.

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For example, if the price of oil rises, then it costs more to make plastic, and a plastics company then passes on some or all of this cost to the consumer, which raises prices and thus – inflation.

🙂

To understand inflation, we must first understand what the word means.

In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation is also erosion in the purchasing power of money – a loss of real value in the internal medium of exchange and unit of account in the economy.

A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index (normally the Consumer Price Index) over time.

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As inflation rises, every rupee you own buys a smaller percentage of a good or service.

The value of a rupee does not stay constant when there is inflation.

This value is seen by looking at its purchasing power, i.e. the real, substantial goods that money can buy.

🙂

Because inflation is a rise in the general level of prices, it is intrinsically linked to money, as captured by the often heard refrain “Inflation is too many dollars chasing too few goods”.

Now if demand for goods and services doesn’t fall as much, then price of goods and services go up.

Hence the retail price index goes up, and inflation takes place. 🙂

Inflation does NOT however mean an increase in the general price level of goods and services within a country.

What inflation actually means is an inflation of the money supply, i.e. an increase in the total number of rupees in circulation.

An increase in the price level is a normal consequence of inflation because it depreciates the currency, lowering each rupee’s purchasing power.

🙂

Prices and inflation

When inflation comes down, prices in the market do not come down immediately. The reasons may be many. Inflation comes down due to

* fall in consumption,

* low industrial output,

* fall in industrial commodity prices, especially crude, steel, etc.,

and

* industrial slowdowns.

🙂

Market prices for ordinary citizen are not like that.

When supply is more than demand, industries slow down the output and the prices go up.

When inflation is down RBI reduces the interest rate, prime lending rate, etc., which increases liquidity in the economy.

Excess money is then often used for speculation with traders cornering the stock and creating artificial scarcity, thereby increasing the prices or not letting it come down.

🙂

In conclusion, inflation will always be with us; it’s an economic fact of life.

It is not intrinsically good or bad, but it certainly does impact our lives.

Everyone knows, once the prices go up they stay up and never come down.

It has no meaning to common man if it does not translate into reasonable living standards.

🙂

There is always a direct relation between prices of certain commodities and inflation. Let’s take the price of oil. This and inflation are connected in a cause and effect relationship. As oil prices move up or down, inflation follows in the same direction. The reason why this happens is that oil is a major input in the economy – it is used in critical activities such as fueling transportation – and if input costs rise, so does the cost of end products. For example, if the price of oil rises, then it costs more to make plastic, and a plastics company then passes on some or all of this cost to the consumer, which raises prices and thus – inflation.

To understand inflation, we must first understand what the word means.

Inflation is an increase in the price of a basket of goods and services that represents the economy as a whole. It is an upward movement in the average level of prices, measured as an annual percentage increase. As inflation rises, every rupee you own buys a smaller percentage of a good or service.

The value of a rupee does not stay constant when there is inflation. This value is seen by looking at its purchasing power, i.e. the real, substantial goods that money can buy. Because inflation is a rise in the general level of prices, it is intrinsically linked to money, as captured by the often heard refrain “Inflation is too many dollars chasing too few goods”.

This is not difficult to follow. Imagine a world with two commodities: Mangoes picked from mango trees, and paper money printed by the government. In a year where there is a drought and mangoes are scarce, the price of mangoes rise, as there is substantially more money chasing very few mangoes.

Now if demand for goods and services doesn’t fall as much, then price of goods and services go up. Hence the retail price index goes up, and inflation takes place.

Inflation does NOT however mean an increase in the general price level of goods and services within a country. What inflation actually means is an inflation of the money supply, i.e. an increase in the total number of rupees in circulation. An increase in the price level is a normal consequence of inflation because it depreciates the currency, lowering each rupee’s purchasing power.

Prices and inflation

There is always a direct relation between prices of certain commodities and inflation. Let’s take the price of oil. This and inflation are connected in a cause and effect relationship. As oil prices move up or down, inflation follows in the same direction. The reason why this happens is that oil is a major input in the economy – it is used in critical activities such as fueling transportation – and if input costs rise, so does the cost of end products. For example, if the price of oil rises, then it costs more to make plastic, and a plastics company then passes on some or all of this cost to the consumer, which raises prices and thus – inflation.

However, even when inflation comes down, prices in the market do not come down immediately. The reasons may be many. Inflation comes down due to

* fall in consumption,

* low industrial output,

* fall in industrial commodity prices, especially crude, steel, etc., and

* industrial slowdowns.

Market prices for ordinary citizen are not like that. When supply is more than demand, industries slow down the output and the prices go up. When inflation is down RBI reduces the interest rate, prime lending rate, etc., which increases liquidity in the economy. Excess money is then often used for speculation with traders cornering the stock and creating artificial scarcity, thereby increasing the prices or not letting it come down.

In conclusion, inflation will always be with us; it’s an economic fact of life. It is not intrinsically good or bad, but it certainly does impact our lives. Everyone knows, once the prices go up they stay up and never come down. Negative inflation has no meaning to common man if it does not translate into reasonable living standards.