Posts Tagged ‘monetary policy’

Weekly Update 12th – 16th July

Stocks in world markets saw huge gains as investors viewed that the recent correction out of fear of double-dip recession in advanced economies has actually overlooked improving outlook for the company’s earnings. Investors sitting on the sidelines bought stocks with the upward revision in earnings estimates for U.S. companies. The gains in markets got a further boost after China said that it will keep a moderately loose policy and South Korea raised interest rates.

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Belief of Asian and Emerging nations will be able to withstand the storm coming from advanced economies rose with the interest rate increases in India, South Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. The European Central Bank left interest rates unchanged as the sovereign debt crisis are still posing a serious threat to regions recovery.

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The IMF raised its forecast for global growth to 4.6 percent in 2010, the biggest gain since 2007, compared with an April projection of 4.2 percent reflecting a stronger than expected recovery in first half and at the same time giving warning that financial market turmoil has increased the risks to the recovery. However, IMF has not revised the next year growth projections of 4.3 percent. The IMF urged developed economies governments to commit to implementing “credible” plans to lower their deficits over the medium term, including the adoption of binding, multiyear targets and said that they don’t need to start fiscal tightening before 2011. It said that monetary policy in advanced economies can remain “highly accommodative for the foreseeable future,” because inflation is expected to remain “subdued,” helping mitigate the effects of fiscal consolidation on growth. The growth forecast for emerging markets was raised to 6.8 percent, from 6.3 percent in April.

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The fastest growth rate will be China’s 10.5 percent, followed by India’s 9.4 percent and Brazil’s 7.1 percent, the fund said. On the domestic front with the recent improved outlook in the monsoon situation and expectation of strong double digit gain in Index of Industrial production would keep the markets on a upbeat note. The result season that is going to start in the coming week and guidance by the companies for the rest of the year is further expected to set the momentum of the markets.

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Indian stock markets are in a clear uptrend though other world markets which were in a downtrend took a sharp counter rally from lower levels. We will have to wait and watch whether the rally which has started in other markets can sustain or not..

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Nifty has support between 5250-5200 levels and Sensex between 17500-17300 levels.

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Volatility is spreading in entire commodity complex and thus investors are keeping a tight vigil on relative changes to find the best value. Fundamentals of Asian countries are still constructive but it is Euro zone which is still giving red signals. For the time being, commodities should move in a range. Later half of the week is full of event risk as some important data’s from US, UK, Japan etc. can speak about the health of economy, which may provide some much needed direction to the commodities. In NCDEX, volume of July contract is shifting towards August contract, hence some volatility in premium is expected in near term.
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RBI hikes policy rates by 25 bps, surprises on timing

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in the post market hours on Friday evening hiked its benchmark policy rates repo and reverse repo by 25 basis points (bps) in order to check the surging pace of price hike and cushion inflationary expectations which have been threatening to move out of central bank’s control.

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The hike while was well anticipated, the timing of the announcement was an absolute surprise. Analysts have been anticipating a mid-cycle hike right from the release of central bank’s annual monetary policy statement in April. However, the euro zone sovereign debt crisis and the recent liquidity crunch have been weighing on the side of keeping status quo on policy stance.

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The expectations of a mid-cycle action increased after the inflation data released in middle of May showed wholesale prices index (WPI) reaching double digit levels. The RBI however remained silent. Again when the empowered group of ministers (EGoM) hiked fuel prices on June 25, analysts expected RBI to act immediately to counter the inflationary impact of partial deregulation of auto fuels and hike cocking fuels. No action however came at that time.

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Now that the scheduled review is just around four weeks away (July 27), most economists were expecting that the RBI will wait for the policy review. However, surprising the markets in a classical way, the central bank increased the rates when no one was anticipating.

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Notwithstanding the surprise though, the policy action is a welcome move as inflationary tendencies have been increasing sharply over last few months. The central bank, according to many observers, is already behind the curve, and may have to pick up the pace of policy tightening going forward if the pace of prices hike in the non-food manufacturing space continues.

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The timing and extent of hike also suggests that the central bank will further raise policy rates in the scheduled review. In fact, by hiking by 25 bps now, the RBI has given itself more flexibility for the forthcoming review where it can now choose among a number of permutations and combinations of policy and reserve rate mix. It may choose to hike everything (repo, reverse repo and CRR) by 25 bps or may leave CRR alone and hike policy rates by 50 bps. A few other combinations are also plausible.

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Justifying the initial delay in policy action and the actual timing of the move, the RBI stated, “This mid-cycle policy action has been warranted by the evolving macroeconomic situation. Even as data for real GDP growth and WPI inflation became available by mid-June 2010, it was considered inadvisable to raise the policy rates as the financial system was dealing with liquidity pressures…Through the month of June, liquidity under LAF operations remained in deficit mode. Consequently, the call rate moved up significantly, resulting in an effective tightening at the short end of the yield curve. The liquidity situation has since begun to ease”.

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Since the RBI expects that liquidity may continue to remain tight for some time, it has also extended the additional liquidity support to scheduled commercial banks under the LAF to the extent of up to 0.5% of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) up to July 16, 2010. The measure was first put in place on May 26 after liquidity scenario tightened following the advance tax outgo and huge payments for the 3G spectrum by telecom operators and was earlier set to expire on July 2, 2010.

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While the two moves may seem contradictory, the RBI didn’t leave the matter to be explained by analysts and added in its statement, “It should be noted in this context that the liquidity easing measures have become necessary to manage what is essentially a temporary and unanticipated development. In no way should they be viewed as inconsistent with the monetary policy stance of calibrated exit, which remains focused on containing inflation and anchoring inflationary expectations without hurting growth”.

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HOW IMPORTANT IS INTEREST RATE?

Essentially, interest is nothing more than the cost someone pays for the use of someone else’s money. In India, an individual willing to purchase a home uses bank’s money (through a mortgage) and in return pays interest to the bank for the privilege or the credit card user borrows money for the short term in order to buy something right away. But the very question that comes to everyone’s mind is how to determine where the rates are heading & what impact will it have?

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So in order to find where the interest rates are heading all one needs to do is to look at the deposits & loans advances of the banks. If banks credit growth is more than its deposits then banks may raise the deposit rates or may increase the lending rates in order to match the asset & liability mismatch. When the Central Bank (RBI) feels that the credit growth has started picking up & is higher than its target levels, RBI tinkers with its policy rates gives signals to the commercial banks to review the interest rates be it on the deposit front or on the lending front.

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Effects of the rising interest rates On individuals

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The first indirect effect of an increased rate is that banks increase the rates that they charge their customers to borrow money. Individuals are affected through increases to credit card and mortgage interest rates, especially if they carry a floating interest rate. This has the effect of decreasing the amount of money consumers can spend. After all, people still have to pay their EMI’s, and when these installments become more expensive, households are left with less disposable income.

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On the Corporates financials

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Corporates too borrow money from banks to run and expand their operations. When the banks make borrowing more expensive, corporates may  not borrow at all or may not borrow at the same pace that they were doing when the rates were lower. Less business spending can slow down the growth of a company, resulting in decreases in profit.

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Even businesses are also indirectly affected as a result of the actions of the individual consumers as individuals are left with less disposable income which affects the company’s top & bottom lines (that is, revenue and profits). Apart from having an indirect affect businesses are affected in a more direct way as well.

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On GDP Growth

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The government essentially has two weapons in its arsenal to help guide the economy towards a path of stable growth without excessive inflation; monetary policy and fiscal policy. Fiscal policy comes from the government in the form of taxation and federal budgeting policies. While fiscal policy can be very effective in specific cases to spur growth in the economy, most market watchers look to monetary policy to do most of the heavy lifting in keeping the economy in a stable growth pattern. Monetary policy is defined as any action to limit or increase the amount of money that is circulating in the economy. That means the central bank (RBI) can make money easier or harder to come by, thereby encouraging spending to spur the economy and constricting access to capital when growth rates seem to be approaching unsustainable levels.

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Stock Price Effects

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Clearly, changes in the rates affect the behavior of consumers and business; hence the stock market is also affected. Remember that one method of valuing a company is to take the sum of all the expected future cash flows from that company discounted back to the present. To arrive at a stock’s price, take the sum of the future discounted cash flow and divide it by the number of shares available. This price fluctuates as a result of the different expectations that people have about the company at different times and are willing to buy or sell shares at different prices. If the company is seen as cutting back on its growth spending or is making less profit – either through higher debt expenses or less revenue from consumers then, the estimated amount of future cash flows will drop. All else being equal, this will lower the price of the company’s stock.

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Investment Effects

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With a lowered expectation in the growth and future cash flows of the company, investors will not get as much growth from stock price appreciation, making stock ownership less desirable. Furthermore, investing in stocks can be viewed as too risky as compared to other investments. When the central bank raises its rate, newly offered government securities, such T- bills and bonds, are often viewed as the safest investments and will usually experience a corresponding increase in interest rates. In other words, the “risk-free” rate of return goes up, making these investments more desirable.

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Conclusion

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We should keep in mind, however, that these factors and results are all interrelated. What we described above are very broad interactions, which can play out in innumerable ways. Interest rates are not the only determinant of stock prices and there are many considerations that go into stock prices and the general trend of the market – an increased interest rate is only one of them. Therefore, one can never say with confidence that an interest rate hike will have an overall negative effect on stock prices.

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Stay Tuned for More Updates :)

Farm Production likely to Go Down

Farm Production likely to Go Down

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Due to decline in kharif production on account of drought and floods in several parts of India,the output from agriculture sector is expected to decrease by 0.2% in the current fiscal against 1.6% growth in the previous year stated the Central Statistical Organization (CSO).

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However, late last month, the RBI in its Q3 review of the monetary policy had projected that the agricultural GDP growth in 2009-10 is likely to be near zero.

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Production of foodgrains and oilseeds is likely to decline by 8% and 5% in the 2009-10 crop year compared with the previous year.

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The sugarcane output is likely to dip by 11.8% and that could add up to pressure on the sugar prices.

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Meanwhile, among the horticultural crops, production of fruits and vegetables is expected to increase by 2.5% and 4.8%, respectively, in 2009-10.

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Rice production is estimated to be 71.65 million tonnes in the 2009-10 kharif season as compared to the actual production of 84.58 million tonnes in the previous season.

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On the other hand, production of coarse cereals is also likely to fall to 22.76 million tonnes from the actual production of 28.34 million tonnes in the 2008-09 kharif season.

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Weekly Update of The Market (1st – 5th February) Part 1

Hello Friends, here, we bring you the weekly overview of the Indian as well as of the Global economy and along with the latest global business and industry updates.

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Weekly Update of The Market (1st - 5th February) Part 1

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A bout of volatility was witnessed in the domestic market throughout the week due to

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1.  F&O expiry,

2.  unfavorable global cues because of gloomy earnings forecast,

3.  anxiety about China‘s monetary tightening,

4.  the deteriorating finances of countries ranging from Greece to Japan and

5.  India’s central bank‘s decision to raise the CRR to 5.75.

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But on later days of the week, US Federal Reserve’s decision to keep interest rates unchanged boosted sentiments of global markets.

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Closer home, investors also heaved a sigh of relief as the central bank kept key interest rates unchanged at the quarterly policy review indicating that it would maintain a balance between price stability and growth and raised its GDP growth projection for the current fiscal to 7.5 %.

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The RBI at its quarterly monetary policy review raised CRR by 75 basis points to suck out excess liquidity from the banking system to the tune of Rs 36000 crore.

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On the flip side, the challenges that RBI foresees for the economy is fiscal consolidation.

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The central bank lifted its wholesale price index inflation forecast for the end of the fiscal year in March 2010 to 8.5% from its earlier forecast of 6.5%.

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RBI also said it expected inflation to moderate starting in July 2010, assuming a normal monsoon and global oil prices holding at current levels.

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Moreover, US Federal Reserve too maintained interest rates at near zero levels and vowed to do so for an extended period of time.

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Additionally, it also signaled its intention of unwinding the massive monetary stimulus that it had undertaken during the peak of the crisis.

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🙂

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Stay Tuned for More on weekly updates.

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Note : For More Latest Industry, Stock Market and Economy News and Updates, please click here

RBI Increases CRR, Kicked off its War against Inflation

RBI Increases CRR, Kicked off its War against Inflation

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The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has kicked off its war against inflation and build-up of inflationary pressures by announcing a surprise increase of 75 basis points in the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR).

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Cash reserve ratio is the minimum liquid assets, banks have to retain against deposits or park with the central bank in the form of government securities.

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The CRR will be hiked in two stages : 50 basis points from Feb 13 and another 25 basis from Feb 27 – from the present 5 percent, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor D Subbarao told.

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However, in a cautious move not to disrupt the money supply, the RBI left the key policy rates – repo and reverse repo – unchanged.

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“As a result of this increase in the CRR, about Rs.36,000 crore of excess liquidity will be absorbed from the system,” Subbarao added, as he presented the third quarterly update of the central bank’s monetary policy for this fiscal.

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Subbarao said the cut in excess liquidity will help anchor inflationary expectations and that the recovery process of the economy will be supported without compromising on price stability.

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As inflation was steadily growing and the economy was slowly returning to higher growth trajectory, it was expected that the RBI would tighten monetary policy.

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But the 75-bps hike, according to investors, is a “more hawkish” move than many expected.

The market had expected and was prepared for a 50-bps hike.

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Central bank has said the action was necessary as the “rapidly rising” food inflation was putting pressure on other sectors as well.

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India’s inflation jumped to 7.31 percent in December, 2009 from 4.78 percent in November, mainly driven by high food prices.

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The questions cropping up as a result of this move are :

-Will this move by the central bank going to check the inflation?

-Moreover, what implications this step holds for the economic growth?

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Stay Tuned for More.. 🙂

Wise Money Weekly Update of The Market (Week: 25th – 29th January)

Hello Friends, here, we bring you the weekly view of the Indian as well as of the Global markets and latest global business and industry updates..

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Wise Money Weekly Update of The Market (Week: 25th - 29th January)

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A sell-off in global stocks, disappointment from key corporate earnings like L&T, possibilities of further monetary tightening by China and US president‘s proposal to put new restrictions on big banks weighed heavily on the domestic markets.

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In the forthcoming week, domestic markets are expected to remain volatile as traders roll positions in the derivative segment from January 2010 series to February 2010 series.

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Markets will also take cue from monetary policy which is scheduled to come out on January 29.

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Though tightening is largely expected by way of Cash Reserve Ratio hike as RBI has already started the first phase of ‘exit’ in its October 2009 policy statement but there is a belief if the RBI sucks out some liquidity, it may not raise interest rates, since liquidity is excess in the system.

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The Indian food price inflation is largely due to supply constraints.

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But going ahead anticipation of decline in food price inflation & lower borrowing from government in future because of huge money raising plans through disinvestment are some of the factors that are likely to determine RBI stance on increasing policy rates.

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The widely watched wholesale price index rose an annual 7.3% in December 2009, its highest since November 2008 and accelerating from a 4.8 % rise in November 2009.

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Food prices rose 16.81 % in the 12 months to 9 January 2010, easing from nearly 20 % in early December.

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On the Global economic front, GDP of China returned to double-digit growth in the fourth quarter of 2009 at 10.7 percent, and over the full year GDP surpassed the government’s target of eight percent.

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Back at home, domestic economy, which grew at 7.9% in the September quarter, is expected to grow 6-6.5% in the December quarter.

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The World Bank has raised its forecast at 2.7% for global growth in 2010.

Moreover it has raised its forecast for US growth in 2010 to 2.5% growth, after predicting 1.8% in June.

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Japan’s gross domestic product will expand 1.3% this year, more than the 1% predicted in June.

The euro area’s economy is forecasted to grow 1%, compared with the earlier estimate of 0.5% expansion.

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🙂

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Stay Tuned for More on this..

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Note : For More Latest Industry, Stock Market and Economy News and Updates, please click here

Hello Friends, here, we bring you the weekly view of the Indian as well as of the Global markets and latest global business and industry updates.