Posts Tagged ‘CPI’

Weekly Update 11th – 15th October 2010

Beside Indian market all global markets closed in green in the week gone by on the expectation of policy easing by developed nations. Central banks resorting to purchase of debt and currency intervention in developedeconomies is flooding markets with liquidity and funds are flowing to Asia for higherreturns. Fed Chairman Ben S. Bernanke has signaled that Fed may announce thepurchase of more Treasuries as soon as their next policy meeting in November in aneffort to boost growth and reduce an unemployment rate.

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The Bank of Japan said this week it will establish a 5 trillion yen ($61 billion) fund to buy government bondsand other assets. It also cut its benchmark overnight interest rate for the first timesince 2008, dropping it to a range of zero to 0.1 percent. Joining the league European Central Bank President Jean- Claude Trichet too said that ECB policymakers are in the “same mood” as a month ago and for now remain committed tophasing out their unlimited lending program.With the economic activity gaining pace, it is believed that Indian market wouldcontinue to see overseas buying. Moreover Indian government plans to raise $8.9billion in the year ending March 31 selling state assets including Coal India, Steel Authority of India Ltd. and Indian Oil Corp. thereby giving more investment opportunities to investors.

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While many developed nations are intervening in the currency markets in order tostem the appreciation in the currency, Indian Finance minister is of the opinion thatthe situation has not gone to an extent at which there is a need to restrict portfolio or foreign direct investment. As a matter of fact Indian rupee gained 4.5 percent inSeptember. Finance Minister said “We should try to engage the countries innegotiations and build up a consensus through which the matter can be resolved andit cannot be resolved through confrontation.” The International Monetary Fundraised its 2010 economic growth forecast for India to 9.7 percent from 9.4 percent,citing strengthening local consumer demand.

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Since we have already seen a huge run up in the broader indices meaning moreparticipation coming from large cap stocks so now going forward we may expectmore activity in mid and small cap stocks. The result season is starting in the comingweek and corporate would give their guidance for the rest of the year which wouldset the future undertone of the markets. Nifty has support between 5950-5870 and Sensex between 19640-19200 levels.What a stunning rally gold has enjoyed recently on fear of inflation. It has hit many records in fewer days.

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Silver was not behind, it made life time high of `34898 on MCX and breached the mark of `35000 in spot market. Talk of quantitative easing by US and rate cut by BoJ are creating anxiety over currency devaluation and long-terminflation is keeping gold and silver on remarkable run up. After witnessing the bigswings of both side, we can say that trend of crude oil is little bit in indecision mode.However, bias should be on upside. Michigan Confidence, CPI and advance retailsales data of US may further provide the direction to metals and energy. Industrialmetals which have made upper trading range last week, are likely to trade up onweakening dollar index.

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Weekly Update 9th – 13th August

The last week saw good amount of buying in U.S and other markets as the companies reported better numbers than the expectations in the result season. However the concerns remain over the U.S. recovery as the consumer spending, pending home sales and factory orders were all weaker than projected in June indicating moderation in the second half of the calendar year.

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In China, banking regulator has asked the lenders to conduct a stress test including worst case scenarios of prices dropping 50 percent to 60 percent in cities where they have risen excessively. The test highlights the government concern over the health of property market even after the regulator has tightened the real estate lending to crack down on speculation since mid April.

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Huge foreign money inflow, strong auto sales and manufacturing data together with good monsoon especially in the fortnight ending 4th August 2010 kept the markets on upbeat note. Life Insurance Corporation said that it plans to invest `2 trillion stocks and bonds in the current fiscal year. So far the Insurance major has invested 390 billion in the first quarter including 100 billion in equities.

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Approximately 2080 companies that have announced numbers have shown a mixed picture. The combined net profit of all companies fell 9.2% to 57,560 crore on 20.7% rise in sales to 7,07,925 crore in Q1 June 2010 over Q1 June 2009.

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Stock specific movement in market is likely to continue as some of the major companies like Bharti Airtel, State Bank, Reliance Communication, Suzlon, etc. are coming out with the results in the coming week.

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Pranab Mukherjee has already expressed concerns over the aggressive interest increase as it may moderate the economic growth. The Index of Industrial Production that saw some moderation in growth in May and also revised downward for the month of April is further expected to show some moderation in the month of June. Six core industries having weight of 26.68 percent in IIP have experienced a 3.4 percent expansion in June compared to 6.3 percent in the prior month. The data scheduled to be released on 12th August is likely to influence the markets and may help in gauging the central bank move in the coming months.

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Overall trend of world markets is up. Volatility indicators near lows are a sign of concern as it reflects that investors are not worried at all in taking positions. But till the trend of stock market is up, one should be playing on the long side only. US dollar index fall in last 3 months has also contributed to the rise of various asset classes. Nifty has support between 5350-5300 levels and Sensex between 17800-17600 levels.

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It appears that bulls are dominating bears in commodities. Market is looking very enthusiastic on the back of better results together with buoyant equity market. It is evident by the increased volume of commodity bourses across the globe. Noteworthy decline in dollar index has also supported buying in commodities.

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However, 80 is very good support for dollar index. The week is full of event risk. Traders may refrain to take large position in bullions before FOMC rate decision meeting. CPI and advance retail sales data of US will provide further direction to the base metals. Ongoing hurricane season is likely to keep crude oil in upper range. Severe drought and the decision to halt the export from 15th August to 31st December have stimulated fresh buying in grains and they are continuously moving up. Oil seeds and edible oil complex is looking promising and investors should utilized every dip as buying opportunity.

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INFLATION – “THE SILENT CREEPER” Final Part

Hello Friends here we come up with an extension of our previous blog, INFLATION

–  “THE SILENT CREEPER” Part 2.

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INFLATION – “THE SILENT CREEPER” Part 3

In previous Blog we had touched upon the possible Measures to check inflation.

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Now in this part we would look into other concerns in Indian economy regarding the parameters to check inflation.

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Concerns in Indian Economy Regarding Inflation :

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Apart from reasons and measures to check inflation, other concern in Indian economy is the parameters to check inflation.

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It is well known that India is the only country which considered WPI (Wholesale Price Index) while rest of the countries measured CPI (Consumer Price Index).

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WPI consists of 435 goods over 1993-94, as base year in which the weightage of food items is only 16%, which has large weightage of consumer spending in India.

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Though WPI in India is still in single digit, if we consider CPI it is already in double digit due to dearer farm articles and their higher weightage in measures.

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In CPI, food articles have 50% weightage.

Hence there is a wide gap between the weightage of food articles of WPI and CPI, which are unable to give the clear pictures.

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Furthermore, 2/3rd of the price quotations used to calculate the WPI are sourced from only four metros.

Hence to get the real picture, area should be widened.

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comparison between food inflation and WPI from January, 2008 to October, 2009.

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In the above chart, it is a comparison between food inflation and WPI from January, 2008 to October, 2009.

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Line chart is representing WPI monthly inflation whereas bar chart is indicating food article inflation.

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It appears that food article inflation is on continuous rise while WPI monthly inflation saw both side movements.

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It has started its northward journey in the month of March-April and it is still continued.

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Arrival of kharif crop is less likely to cool it as we are expecting 18% decline in kharif crop.

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Hence downside will be limited, rather it may move in a range with upside bias.

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The words of future RBI (Reserve Bank of India) has revised its outlook for inflation and expecting that it should be between the range of 5% to 6-6.5% for the year ending March 2010.

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There is a fear in the economy that the real impact of almost 18% drop in kharif rice production is to reflect in inflation.

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It would occur when kharif produce; rice, pulses, oilseeds and cereals would start coming in the market.

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With witnessing favourable weather conditions, economy is expecting strong rabi produce, which may cool off inflation of food articles to some extent.

However, we cannot rule out the possibility adverse weather.

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Ultimately what matters is final produce and yield.

Government has to take care of everything like, demand –supply equilibrium, money supply, distribution etc.

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Otherwise it will become nightmare for “aam admi” and hamper the economic growth.

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🙂

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Note : For More Latest Industry, Stock Market and Economy News and Updates, please click here

RBI’s Monetary Policy Stance – Part 3

Just an extension of our previous blog “RBI, Monetary Projections And Indian Economy


RBI’s Monetary Policy Stance - Part 3

RBI’s Monetary Policy Stance - Part 3

In this Blog we would touch upon the aspects as that of RBI’s Monetary Policy Stance and few more facts which carries direct or indirect connection with the RBI Policies.

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For example, business confidence index ,industrial recovery status, overall consumption and investment, export-imports status etc;

The True Facts:

So far business confidence has also improved, and demand conditions seem to have picked up, as seen by better order book and increased capital finance requirements.

Industrial recovery seems to be on its way with 5.8% growth in IIP during April-August ’09.

A revival in capital flows, and stronger performance of the core infrastructure sector (4.8% for April-August ’09) seems to be indicating a slight recovery in the economy.

However, there has been a deceleration in growth of private consumption and investment demand, and raw material prices are expected to rise on account of inflationary pressures.

The deficient monsoon could also reduce rural demand.

First quarter earnings of corporates reflect a decline in sales, and non-food credit growth has decelerated, with credit card and consumer durables related credit turning negative.

Exports have continued to decline as external demand dependent services remain sluggish.

The economy is showing some signs of recovery, while a rising CPI has now pushed WPI into the positive territory, mainly on account of higher food prices.

The RBI’s stance will thus have to manage the trade-off inflationary pressures between supporting growth and controlling .

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Monetary Policy Stance

On the basis of the above overall assessment, the stance of monetary policy for the remaining period of 2009-10 will be as follows:

– Keep a vigil on the trends in inflation and be prepared to respond swiftly and effectively through policy adjustments to stabilize inflation expectations.

Monitor the liquidity situation closely and manage it actively to ensure that credit demands of productive sectors are adequately met while also securing price stability and financial stability.

-Maintain a monetary and interest rate regime consistent with price stability and financial stability, and supportive of the growth process.

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Stay Tuned for more on the topic.

We would cover Analysis view from the Analyst with respect to the monetary point of view.

Note : For More Finance Gyan, Latest Industry, Stock Market, Economy News and Updates, please click here

Factors that Move the Interest Rates – Part 2 (MONETARY POLICY)

Monetary Policy

In previous Blog we have discussed about the major factors responsible for the change in interest rates and price of bonds indirectly.

All those three factors like Inflation, Currency and Liquidity have been touched upon in last blog.

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Now time to look into another major factor which causes  movement in the interest rate. The factor i am talking about is Monetary Policy. 🙂

Monetary Policy: The RBI controls liquidity largely through monetary policy instruments –

(i) CRR & SLR – CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio) refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to maintain with the RBI.

Banks are also required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) requirements.

If either of these is increased, liquidity tightens and so interest rates harden (increase).:(

Recently, RBI has reduced both these rates to infuse liquidity in the system – CRR is 5% (down 250 bps from March ’08) and SLR is 24% (down 100 bps).

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(ii) Reverse repo rate – it is the overnight interest rate that a bank earns for lending money to the RBI in exchange for G-Secs.

A hike in reverse repo rate increases interest rates. Currently, reverse repo rate stands at 3.25%.

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(iii) Repo rate – it is the discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks.

To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash).

To contract the money supply, it increases the repo rates. The current repo rate is 4.75%.

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(iv) OMO and MSS – OMOs (Open Market Operations) are outright transactions in government securities.

When the RBI buys G-Secs, it is injecting money into the system, hence, increasing liquidity, which softens (reduces) interest rates.

When the RBI sells G-Secs, it sucks out excess money from the system i.e. reduces liquidity in the system which hardens interest rates.

MSS (Market Stabilisation Scheme) is the issuance of treasury bills and dated securities by way of auction by the RBI.

This affects interest rates in the same manner as OMOs.

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Having collected updates on where the above parameters stand, one can have a better understanding of why interest rates are at their current levels, as well as which direction they are expected to move in.

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If most of them indicate that a rise in interest rates is expected, bond prices are likely to fall in the future.

On the contrary, an expectation of a fall in interest rates means bond prices will rise.

A word of caution here though – timing interest rate changes is difficult. This is because there is a low likelihood of being able to precisely predict the movement in the factors discussed above.

So in order to minimize interest rate risk, one should ensure that the bond portfolio is diversified across various maturities.

🙂

4 Monetary Policy: The RBI controls liquidity largely through monetary policy instruments –

(i) CRR & SLR – CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio) refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to maintain with the RBI. Banks are also required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) requirements. If either of these is increased, liquidity tightens and so interest rates harden (increase). Recently, RBI has reduced both these rates to infuse liquidity in the system – CRR is 5% (down 250 bps from March ’08) and SLR is 24% (down 100 bps).

(ii) Reverse repo rate – it is the overnight interest rate that a bank earns for lending money to the RBI in exchange for G-Secs. A hike in reverse repo rate increases interest rates. Currently, reverse repo rate stands at 3.25%.

(iii) Repo rate – it is the discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks. To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash).

To contract the money supply, it increases the repo rates. The current repo rate is 4.75%.

(iv) OMO and MSS – OMOs (Open Market Operations) are outright transactions in government securities. When the RBI buys G-Secs, it is injecting money into the system, hence, increasing liquidity, which softens (reduces) interest rates. When the RBI sells G-Secs, it sucks out excess money from the system i.e. reduces liquidity in the system which hardens interest rates. MSS (Market Stabilisation Scheme) is the issuance of treasury bills and dated securities by way of auction by the RBI. This affects interest rates in the same manner as OMOs.

Having collected updates on where the above parameters stand, one can have a better understanding of why interest rates are at their current levels, as well as which direction they are expected to move in. If most of them indicate that a rise in interest rates is expected, bond prices are likely to fall in the future. On the contrary, an expectation of a fall in interest rates means bond prices will rise. A word of caution here though – timing interest rate changes is difficult. This is because there is a low likelihood of being able to precisely predict the movement in the factors discussed above. So in order to minimize interest rate risk, one should ensure that the bond portfolio is diversified across various maturities.

Factors that Move the Interest Rates – Part 1:)

Interest rates

In earlier blog we have discussed about how Bonds are different than equities and why are they considered less risky instruments. 🙂

Now coming on to this blog, we would talk about the 3 major factors (other than monetary policy) which moves the interest rates  and ultimately causes a price change in the Bonds.

🙂

To determine where the interest rates are headed, it is important to have an understanding of the factors that move the interest rates.

This will in turn help gauge which direction bond prices are going to take, and one can make appropriate adjustments to a bond portfolio in order to maximize gains or minimize losses.

🙂

1. Inflation:

Interest rates are directly related to inflation i.e. if inflation rises, so do interest rates.

This is because lenders demand higher interest rates to compensate for the decrease in purchasing power of the money they will be repaid in the future.

This causes bond prices to fall, since bond prices are inversely related to interest rates.

Inflation itself is affected by the economy’s currency and liquidity position.

In India, inflation is measured by WPI (Wholesale Price Index), for which is released every week.

For the week ended July 25, 2009, WPI was at (-) 1.58%. This may lead one to assume that inflation has gone down, but the reason for this low figure is a high base effect from 2008, when WPI showed doubledigit growth.

Current CPI (Consumer Price Inflation) figures are in the range of 8.6-11.5% for May-June 2009.

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2. Currency: A weaker rupee causes rising inflation, which in turn results in a rise in interest rates.

This is because one’s purchasing power reduces – if one was paying $60 or Rs.2400 (Rs.40=$1) to buy 1 barrel of crude oil, a weaker rupee (Rs.45=$1) means the same 1 barrel will now cost Rs.2700 i.e. Rs.300 more.

Similarly, a stronger rupee increases one’s purchasing power and brings down inflation, causing interest rates to fall.

The latter scenario is seen as a positive for the bond market, since it leads to rising bond prices.

Since 2008, the rupee has weakened significantly to Rs.47- 48 in July-August ’09.

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3. Liquidity: Interest rates are directly related to liquidity.

A crunch in liquidity means money is not readily available, since people are not willing to part with their cash.

A lower interest rate is then offered, which increases the price of already existing bonds in the market. The vice-versa also holds true.

One way of measuring the liquidity present in the system is to check the money supply measure – M3.

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There is another factor which is responsible for the movement in interest rates that is Monetray Policy which we would discuss in next blog

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To determine where the interest rates are headed, it is important to have an understanding of the factors that move the interest rates. This will in turn help gauge which direction bond prices are going to take, and one can make appropriate adjustments to a bond portfolio in order to maximize gains or minimize losses.